Over the past 20 years there have been regular calls for more and better evaluation, but we cannot take a simplistic approach. It is not straightforward equation that more and better evaluation, will necessarily lead to better evidence-based policy and results. Structural reforms are a necessary precursor. Structural reforms that empower Indigenous people at every level, including locally and regionally, are fundamental to improving outcomes. These structural reforms are a necessary precursor to achieving transformative improvements to Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning.